1. Introduction to the Model of Developing Students and Graduate SHC
Issues on higher education relate to students’ and graduate, hard skills and competitiveness had been hugely and hotly discussed in recent 10 years. Difference terms used in the discussion, they are soft skills, generic skills, life skills and interpersonal skills, etc., but the terms are referred to the same topic of discussion. The issues are broadly published in journal, books and conference, such as Hadiyanto & Suratno, 2015, Bialik, et. al. (2015), Hassan. et. al. (2013), Hadiyanto & Mohammed Sani (2013), Hadiyanto. (2011), Hadiyanto, (2010), Person, Ann., et. al. (2009), The Ontario Public Services (2016), and Zalizan., et. al (2006) discuss how students provided with soft skills activities to gain hard skills and expected that the graduates possess competitiveness at the job market.
Universities curriculum had been changed and continually update to meet the local and global needs and challenges. Dealing with the issues, Universities in Indonesian are in an effort to obtain the standard output of Indonesian Qualification Framework (KKNI).The graduates are demanded to acquire more soft skills rather than hard skills during their learning at Universities as the result they will possess individual competitiveness not only at job market but also in their career development. It is understood that hard skills can be acquired and developed through soft skills practices. To meet the demand most of universities in Indonesia sporadically state that the graduates have to possess soft skills, hard skills and competitiveness as an outcome of teaching and learning process at Universities. However there is no clear guidance how to design and implement teaching and learning process in undergraduate program with soft skills and hard skills embedded,then there is no measurement tool yet to evaluate the students’ capability on soft skills, hard skills and competitiveness perfomance as output and outcome of learning process atUniversitas Jambi (Directorat of Students and Learning, 2014 & Hadiyanto 2014).
In short, thought the KKNI had been established since 2013. However, the measurement of soft skills, hard skills and competitiveness development are not yet implemented at Universities level, and there is no a rubrics how to measure the students’ SHC output. As a part of research on development model of SHC which funded by LPDP RISPRO under Ministry of Finance Indonesia, the model of developing students and graduates’ SHC was developed to be implemented in the learning process.
Sunday (2013) and Indonesian Higher Education Curriculum was designed based on Indonesian Qualification Framework (2011), it aims to provide the students with more to soft skills rather gaining hard skills. Students’ learning at universities are expected gaining hard skills through the practicing of soft skills. Soft skills itself are driven by using student center learning (SCL)in the classroom and outdoor class. Various strategies can be designed and applied to encourage the SCL in the learning process such as cooperative learning, group work, presentation, discussion, experiencing learning depend on the teachers creativity. By applying these strategies, they students will learn, practice and improve their skills how to communicate, understand others, work to gather, suggest idea, learn from others, use some IT applications, etc.
Related to the output soft skills, hard skills and competitiveness of the learning. In the context of learning, students performance rubric of SHC was developed to measure students’ soft skills, hard skills as well as students competetiveness. Rubric for measuring soft skills, hard skills and competitiveness of the students or employee in practical context is very rare, however many instruments of self-evaluation questionnaire had been developed and applied to measure students’ soft skills, hard skills and competitiveness.
In daily teaching and learning, hard skills are typically easy to observe, quantify and measure. The evaluation formally designs for this type of skills for every subject. However the hard skills and competitiveness in term practices in real contact were rarely measured by educator. Soft skills are typically hard to observe, quantify and measure by a test. Skills and behaviour can be observed by performance and rubric is used measure it (Educational Research Service, 2004; Mertler, 2001).
SHC Rubric are rating scales that are specifically used with performance assessments. They are formally defined as scoring guides, consisting of specific SHC performance criteria, used in evaluating student work on performance assessements, rubric are typecally rubric was typically specific form of scoring instrument used when evaluating student performances or products resulting from a performance task (Mertler, 2001).
1. Model of Students SHC Development
The term Soft Skills, Hard Skills and Competitiveness (SHC) in this study is defined as a blended ability that possessed by someone in an effort of obtaining his/her objective. At university Level skills developed during teaching and learning process at university in order to provide students with three competencies; Soft Skills and Hard Skills, and competitiveness as outcome of soft kills and hard skills.
The students’ SHC Development model is implemented integrated with currucurilum, syllabus and lesson plan. Students SHC development occur in blended learning activities in every subject of a program. This theories based on literature studies as discussed above. The phases of students’ SHC development are divided into three phases they are input, process and output.
Input is a phase planning and preparation before implementing students’ SHC Development Model into the teaching and learning process in a subject. In this phase, teachers need to search hand out, materials, and resources to be selected for the content of a course, and considers component of soft skills and hard skills that will be insert into the syllabus and course design. Delivering method and strategies should be define and match with type of materials, hand out and expected SHC outcome.
Phase process is an implementation of students’ SHC Development through teaching and learning process. Syllabus and lessons’ plan unit were developed in this phase. Components of SHC and delivery method and strategy, teachers’ guidelines must be clearly stated in the syllabus and lesson plan. In the class activities, teachers must act the lesson plan. Students are facilitated and guided to be active to obtain the learning achievement in this case soft skills and hard skills by doing interaction, discussion, exploration, and using multi-resources depend on lesson plan. Teachers must observed students practices of soft skills and hard skills as well as how they improve the practices of soft skills and hard skills.
Output phase is assessing the students’ achievement based on SHC standard. Students are expected gaining certain level of SHC level through teaching and learning process a long semester. Students’ Self-evaluation questionnaire and SHC rubric assessment (Hadiyanto, 2017) are used to measure the students level of SHC. Theoretically, the higher of students’ soft skills and hard skills will be higher their competitiveness.
Figur 8 Kerangka Model Pengembangan SHC Mahasiswa dan Lulusan Universitas Jambi